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Glossary of Terms


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Access Code This is the five digit number provided by the City of Regina on the Tax Notices.  This number is required to register your Assessment and Tax eProperty account.

Account Number A unique numeric identifier for a property.

Address The common descriptor that identifies a property. It usually includes a building number and street name.

Adjusted Price (Adjusted Sale Price) The actual sale price of either land, or land and building(s), used in the City’s sales analysis. For the 2017 Reassessment, this price is modified so it is time-adjusted to the base year date of January 1, 2015, as well as adjusted to remove any chattels, financing and business or other non-property interests included in the price.

Annual Assessment The Assessment for the property as it was at the start of the assessment year.

Annual Revised Assessment A corrected assessment amount indicating what the assessment should have been at the start of the assessment year.  These are usually the result of a change to the property discovered after the start of the assessment year.

Applied MAF (Applied Market Adjustment Factor) A factor used to calculate the assessment of buildings on all properties (sold and unsold) within a valuation neighbourhood. This factor is used in the Cost Approach to Value to reflect market influences derived from recent sales of similar properties.

The City of Regina Assessment Branch calculates the MAF for each sale property listed in the Sales Report (see definition for Calculated MAF). The applied MAF is determined in accordance with the Saskatchewan Assessment Manual by selecting the median (middle) calculated MAF within the sales sample.

Approach to Value An approach to value, or valuation approach, is a model that attempts to represent the interactions between buyers and sellers in a market.  In economic terms, an approach to value is used to understand the economic forces and principles within a market and to represent these forces in a model in order to estimate the money value of property.  There are three main approaches in real property valuation: the Cost Approach to Value, the Sales Comparison Approach to Value and the Income Approach to Value.  The common element in all three of these approaches is that they must represent both supply and demand sides of the market.

Arrears Taxes owed after December 31 of the current tax year.

Assessed Parcel The property identifier used by Information Services Corporation of Saskatchewan containing the lot, block and plan number of a property.

Assessed Value Assessed value assessments are the property assessments determined in accordance with The Cities Act and the Saskatchewan Assessment Manual adopted by the Saskatchewan Assessment Management Agency. The assessed value of properties reflects a base date of January 1, 2015.

Assessment and Tax eProperty Assessment and Tax eProperty is a self-serve application for individual property owners. This is a convenient way for property owners to access their property tax information details, as well as update mailing address information, update where their education taxes are paid (Public or Separate), enroll for TIPPS and more. 

Assessment and Tax eServices Assessment and Tax eServices is a self-serve application for Law Firms, Mortgage Companies and Third Party Agents. This allows them to transact business from any location at all hours. 


Balcony  This term usually refers to the exterior balcony on an apartment.  It is similar to an exterior deck except that it is raised and accessed from the suite.

Bank Account in the name of This is the name that the bank account is registered to and should be written in the same way the account is registered at the bank (please do not use nicknames or abbreviations).

Bank Account Number the bank account number identifies the specific chequing account that the customer has at the bank.

Bank ID the Bank Identification Number identifies the specific bank that holds the account.

Bank Verification or Void Cheque A bank verification is a form which provides the customer(s) account information and confirms bank account’s eligibility to withdraw funds from. A void cheque is simply a blank check from the banking institution the customer(s) wish their funds to be debited from with the word “VOID” written across it.  The word “VOID” prevents the cheque from being used to make payments.

Bare Land Condominium In bare land condominium developments, a building is not required to be on the parcel when the condominium plan is submitted for approval. The bare land "unit" is a specific portion of the parcel. A purchaser buys the "unit" from the developer and contracts with the developer to build a building on the unit. In this sense, the "unit"' is analogous to a lot in a subdivision. 

Base Tax In a base tax system, a specific dollar amount is applied to the municipal portion of each tax bill, regardless of an owner's property assessment. The calculation for the school and library portion of the tax bill do not change.

The municipal portion of the property tax bill is calculated as:

Base Tax + (Taxable Assessment X Municipal Mill Rate  X Mill Rate Factor) ÷ 1000 = Municipal Taxes

While a base tax changes the amount of taxes paid for a specific property, a base tax does not increase or decrease the total tax collected.

Currently, municipal, school and library taxes are determined using the following calculation:

(Taxable Assessment  X Municipal Mill Rate  X Mill Rate Factor) ÷ 1000 = Property Taxes

Building Value The total assessment value of all structures located on a property, as determined following the rules and regulations set out in legislation and in the Saskatchewan Assessment Manual . Used in the Cost Approach to Value.

Building Quality  The quality of workmanship and materials used to construct a building. Quality may be defined as any of the following:

Low - Low cost construction meeting minimum building requirements.

Fair - Mass-produced construction with low cost as the primary consideration.

Average - Most common quality of buildings. Mass-produced and meeting or exceeding minimum building requirements. Quality of materials and workmanship are acceptable.

Good - May be mass-produced. Good quality standard materials are used. Some attention is given to architectural design.

Very Good - Frequently individual design. Attention given to interior and exterior refinements and detail.

Excellent - Typically individual design. High quality material and workmanship. Attention to detail.

Business Improvement District (BID) A BID provides a mechanism by which a group of businesses or property owners in a community, area or neighbourhood can collectively organize, finance and implement economic development activities (such as marketing and promotion, signage, streetscaping, etc.).

The City of Regina collects the BID tax (an additional mill rate) on behalf of each Business Improvement District.

There are two BIDs in Regina. The first is called Regina Downtown and includes the area between Osler Street to Albert Street and Saskatchewan Drive to Victoria Avenue. The second is called the Regina Old Warehouse District and includes the area surrounding Dewdney Avenue from Albert Street to Broad Street.


Calculated MAF (Market Adjustment Factor) The market adjustment factor calculated from each individual sale listed in the Building Sales Report for a valuation neighbourhood. Used in the Cost Approach to Value.

Change in Average (percent) Indicates the overall percentage difference in the assessment from the previous year to the current year (i.e. 2016 to 2017).

City-Wide Profile Summary information that provides an overview for a particular group of properties ("Residential" for example). This information describes the property group's characteristics and compares the similarities and differences in assessment change for the property group in different areas (city-wide, market area and valuation neighbourhood.)

Closed Veranda An enclosed extension attached along the exterior of a building or structure.

Cost Approach to Value Approach for estimating market value-based assessments that quantifies the cost in current dollars to recreate the property being assessed and assumes that a potential purchaser would pay no more for that property than the cost of replacement. 

Condo Style  The style of constructions of a building, such as Lowrise Converted Condo, 2 Story Duplex, etc.

Condominium A form of legal ownership of a building and property, consisting of two parts:

  • The first part includes common property, such as roads, parking spaces, recreational facilities, elevators and lawns. Each owner owns a proportionate share of the common property.
  • The second part, called a unit, is owned by and registered in the name of the purchaser of the unit.

Condominiums can be residential, commercial or both. In standard or regular condominiums, a building is divided into units. Typically standard condominiums are usually known as townhouse or apartment condominiums. The Condominium Property Act, 1993 governs the formation of condominiums and defines the rights and responsibilities of condominium developers, owners and boards.

Condominium Complex All of the condominium units within a registered condominium plan.

Condominium Market Model  A grouping of residential condominium properties that have similar influences on value (such as a similar style of construction like "Low Rise Apartment Style") identified when analyzing properties using the Sales Comparison Approach to Value.

Condominium Unit Number A number, assigned by the developer that identifies on the title for the condominium unit and forms part of the legal description for the unit.

Corner Unit or End Unit A unit that is either an end unit of a townhouse or row house complex, or a corner unit in an apartment complex.

Correspondence Communication from the City of Regina to its customers.

Correspondence Log A list of communications sent by the Assessment and Tax Department to its customers.

Covered Parking The parking assigned to a unit that may be part of a parkade or garage. 

Current Balance Outstanding balance on a property tax account.

Current Levy Refers to the current year’s billing of general taxes, calculated using the taxable assessment, mill rate, and mill rate factor.


Deck  Any outdoor floor structure and may have railings, benches and/or roof structure.

Depreciation Loss of value from any cause.

DRCN (also known as Replacement Cost New Less Depreciation) A value representing the 2015 (D)epreciated (R)eplacement (C)ost (N)ew of all buildings located on a property as calculated using the procedures and tables from the Saskatchewan Assessment Manual . Used in the Cost Approach to Value.

Direct Sales A notation used by the City of Regina to refer to properties whose assessments are calculated using the Sales Comparison Approach to Value (also referred to as the Direct Sales Comparison Approach).


Education  See Provincial Education Property Tax

Effective Year Built  The effective year of construction of a structure. This is used when major renovations have taken place and parts of the building now contain new material.

eProperty See Assessment and Tax eProperty.

eServices See Assessment and Tax eServices.

Exemption Under provincial legislation or the approval of City Council, a property may have a portion or all of its assessment not used to calculate annual property taxes.

Statutory exemptions are provided in provincial legislation for properties such as hospitals, schools and places of public worship.


Finished Basement Partitioned living areas built in the basement.

Fireplace The various types of fireplaces and wood-burning stoves, such as natural gas, wood burning, masonry or prefab.

Footprint The land surface area occupied by a building or buildings.


Garage A building or structure used, designed to be used, or reasonably capable of being used, for the storage of cars, trucks or other light vehicles that is constructed to a similar construction standard as residential buildings or structures.

As well, garages can be structures that may be used as shops or sheds, but are constructed to a similar standard and size as residential garages, with or without overhead garage doors. These buildings can be attached, detached or built-in.


Hillside Design A property characteristic that can influence value, as identified by analysis. Used in the Sales Comparison Approach to Value. 


Improved Parcel A parcel of land that contains a building.

Income Approach to Value  (also referred to as the " rental income" approach) Approach for estimating market-value-based assessments that analyses the anticipated future benefits or income from a property and converts this income into an estimate of present value.

Inventory Date  This is the date on which all property characteristics, levy and assessment information is pulled from the taxation and assessment system.




Land Value  The value of a property’s land, based on the average 2015 market conditions, which may be adjusted due to items such as services to lot, street type and/or size of lot. Used in the Cost Approach to Value for improved properties and in the Sales Comparison Approach to Value for vacant land.  

Laneway Charge  A special tax charged to owners of properties that border laneways (gravel and paved) for the purpose of funding maintenance. Each year, the City does maintenance work on a priority basis by assessing the condition of all alleys.

Levy Refers to the current year billing of general taxes calculated using the taxable assessment, mill rate and mill rate factor.

Lien year The year in which an account in tax enforcement had a lien placed on the property due to unpaid levies.

Local Improvements Work that benefits a few specific homes, and is paid for by billing those property owners directly for some or all of the cost. Examples are set by a bylaw, and they include:

  • Sewer and water main installation or replacement
  • Sidewalk installation or replacement
  • Curb and gutter installation or replacement
  • Road or alley paving
  • Alley lighting

Lot Size (also known as Parcel Area) The total square footage of a property’s lot as determined using the City’s Geographical Information System.


MAF (Market Adjustment Factor) When using the Cost Approach to Value, the influence of the real estate market is reflected in an assessment through the application of an applied "market adjustment factor."

To determine the Applied MAF for an entire valuation neighbourhood when assessing properties using the Cost Approach to Value, assessors first determine the Calculated MAF of each sale in that valuation neighbourhood (Building Residual divided by the 2015 Replacement Cost New Less Depreciation building value). The median (middle) of the Calculated MAF is the Applied MAF.

MAF Group A grouping of similar properties based on physical characteristics.

MAF Group Sales All sales of properties within a MAF group, sorted by applied MAF. Multiple applied MAFs indicate that one or more stratifications exist within the MAF group based on geographic locations.

Mailing Address Update A new mailing address provided by the owner of the property.

Market Building Class (also known as Building Class or Building Description) The predominant type of building constructed on a property.

Market Area Through sales and inventory analysis, the City's Assessment Branch is able to group residential properties that are similar in age, size, location and value into distinct Market Areas. Properties in these areas are further grouped into valuation neighbourhoods.

On the Assessment and Sales Statistic Page, the Market Area Profile provides an overview for a particular group of properties within one of the 6 market areas. This information describes the property group's characteristics and compares the similarities and differences in assessment change for the property group in different areas (city-wide, market area and valuation neighbourhood).

Market Model A group of properties used in the market analysis.  The market model applied to a property is the most appropriate model based on comparability of the various models

Market Valuation Standard The standard that is achieved when the assessed value of a non-regulated property: is prepared using mass appraisal; is an estimate of the market value of the estate in fee simple in the property; reflects typical market conditions for similar properties, and; meets any quality assurance standards established by order of the agency.

Marshall Valuation Service This is the version of the Marshall Valuation Service published by Marshall & Swift L.P., as of the January 2015 service update. The Marshall Valuation Service is used to determine replacement costs for the majority of commercial properties valued using the Cost Approach to Value.

Mass Appraisal The process of preparing assessments for a group of properties as of the base date using standard appraisal methods, employing common data and allowing for statistical testing. 

Median Adjusted Sales Amount The mid-range value of sales for a specified property type (i.e. residential) in a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood).

Median Assessment The mid-range value of a specified property type (i.e., residential) in a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood) in the year specified.

Median Lot Size The mid-range value of the size of a lot for a specified property type (i.e., residential) in a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood).

Median Total Living Area The mid-range size of the total living area of a residential property in a specified property type in a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood).

Median Year Built The mid-range age for a specified property type in a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood).

Mill Class [See Property Class Definition]

Mill Class Percent The portion of the property that is assessed for a given mill (property) class.

Mill Rate The tax per dollar of assessed value of property. The rate is expressed in "mills", where one mill is one-tenth of a cent ($0.001). Mill rates are set by each taxing authority to raise the revenue required by their budget.

Mill Rate Factors A factor applied in tax calculations in order to redistribute the amount of total taxes paid by property classes and subclasses according to the tax policies approved by City Council. A mill rate factor does not increase or decrease the total amount of taxes collected annually, but can change the amount of tax collected from each property class or subclass.

2019 Mill Rate Factors









Golf Courses








Minimum Tax A minimum amount of tax, established at the discretion of City Council, with respect to any land and improvement. Under a minimum tax system, the municipal property tax calculation is:

(Taxable Assessment  X Municipal Mill Rate X Mill Rate Factor)÷1000 = Municipal Taxes

The result of this calculation is compared with the established minimum tax. If the calculation is lower than the minimum tax, the minimum tax amount is applied to the property. If the calculation is higher than the minimum tax, the calculated amount is applied to the property. Minimum tax can only be applied to municipal taxes (not to school or library portions). 

Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA)   MRA is a statistical technique that analyses market (independent) variables, such as lot size, building size, building quality and location, and then predicts the value of a single (dependent) variable, that being sale price (market value). MRA is commonly used in the Sale Comparison Approach to Value. 


Number of Parking Stalls The number of parking stalls in Parkade property type.

Number of Properties The number of tax accounts found within a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood) that were analysed.

Number of Sales The number of sold properties found within a specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood) that are used in analysis.


Open Space  A property characteristic that can influence value as identified by analysis. A property must be backing or flanking onto an open space for this characteristic to potentially influence value. Used in the Sales Comparison Approach.

Open Veranda An open extension attached along the exterior of a building or structure.

Other Types  The percentage of properties in the specified area (city-wide, market area or valuation neighbourhood) that are not in the other groups displayed. This includes 3- or 4- level split properties. Found on the Assessment and Sales Statistics page.

Other Charges Under The Cities Act, 2003 and other legislation, the City can add charges to your tax account, such as:

  • Laneway Maintenance: Gravel and paved alleys in Regina are maintained through a special tax charged to owners of properties that use them. Each year, the City does maintenance work on a priority basis by assessing the condition of all alleys.
  • Local Improvements: These include replacement of the City's infrastructure, such as watermains, sidewalks and curbs.
  • Miscellaneous: Overdue water and sewer balances can be transferred to your tax account. As well, if the City must do work on your property due to bylaw violations (e.g. untidy/unsightly land, noxious weeds, junked vehicles, or fire damage) the cost for this work can be added to your tax account.


Parking Spaces Indicates the number of parking spaces related to a property.

Pending Transactions Upcoming transactions that will impact the value of the assessment and/or property tax amount.

Phase-In Adjustment A tax tool available to City Council, to manage tax changes (increases and decreases) because of revaluation. A phase-in adjustment was approved for the 2017 reassessment for commercial and industrial class properties. The phase-in is revenue neutral with the cost of the phase-in for increases off set by phase-in of decreases. The phase-in will see 1/3 of the tax change applied for 2017, 2/3 of the tax change applied for 2018, and 100% of the tax change applied for 2019.

Pool Type Identifies the type of pool on a property.

Porch A roofed structure attached to the exterior of a building or structure.

Primary Building The predominant structure on a property. Typically it is the largest structure.

Property Characteristics  Property features that influence a property's assessment. Using Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA), the City's Assessment Branch identifies a number or property features, including but not limited to:

Property Class  Property classes established by the Province for use by municipalities to apply tax policy decisions (mill rate factors, minimum tax, base tax and tax phase-in). Current property classes include: residential, multi-unit residential, commercial and industrial, seasonal residential, elevators, non-arable (range land), other agricultural and railway rights of way and pipeline.

Property Type  Represents the present use of the property.

Provincial Download  The additional 2.5% mill rate increase that City Council approved after re-opening its budget in April 2017 helps to offset the 10.3 million dollar revenue shortfall as a result of the provincial budget. The City is legislated to have a balanced operating budget each year. Learn more on the 2017 Amended Budget.

Provincial Percentage A percentage established by the Province for each property class (see Property Class.) The assessment calculated following the Saskatchewan Assessment Manual is adjusted by this provincial percentage to arrive at the taxable assessment used to calculate your taxes:

  • Residential - 80% (provincial change for 2017)
  • Multi-unit Residential - 80% (provincial change for 2017)
  • Commercial and Industrial - 100%
  • Seasonal Residential - 80% (provincial change for 2017)
  • Elevators - 100% (provincial change for 2017)
  • Non-arable (Range) Land - 45% (provincial change for 2017)
  • Other Agricultural - 55%
  • Railway Rights of Way and Pipeline - 100%
  • Resource - 100%

Provincial Education Property Tax The Province sets tax policy for education property tax, including the setting of Province-wide mill rates to calculate the education tax for all properties.

The Province-wide mill rates for 2019:



Residential (including Condominiums and Multi-family)


Commercial & Industrial




For further information on the education tax changes and education mill rates please contact the Province of Saskatchewan or call 1-866-984-8577.



Reassessment  A reassessment (also termed revaluation) is a periodic review of the value of all property in a municipality. In Saskatchewan, this is legislated to occur every four years and serves to update property values to a more current valuation base date. For the 2017 reassessment, the legislated valuation base date is January 1, 2015.


Sales Comparison Approach to Value The Sales Comparison Approach is an approach for estimating market value-based assessments by comparing to the sale prices of similar properties that have sold recently.

Sale Date  The month and year in which a property sold.

School Support  Each Individual must declare a single faith, whether they are a member of the religious faith that established the Separate School Division as per The Education Act, or they are not a member. Based on the legislation, this declaration is used to determine what school board (Public or Separate) their education property taxes will be paid to and is applied to all properties for which they are the assessed person. If no declaration is made for an individual, a 100% Public School Support is applied, by default, as per The Cities Act.

Organizations may also declare their School Support, but they are able to split their support. If an organization is undeclared, the calculated average School Support of all declared assessed persons is applied to any properties they own. Currently, this is 71% Public School Support and 29% Separate School Support.

When an Individual or Organization declares their faith, this declaration will stay with them until the City receives a written change. If they sell their current property and purchase another, their school support will remain the same as the old property.

1. Subsection 53(2) of The Education Act, 1995 provides as follows:

"Where, the minority religious faith, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic, has established a separate school division, a property owner is to be assessed with respect to his or her property:

(a) in the case of a member of the minority religious faith, as a taxpayer of the separate school division;

(b) in any other case, as a taxpayer of the public school division."

2. Subsection 297(1) of The Education Act, 1995 provides that where a property is "held by two or more persons as joint tenants or tenants in common, each holder is to be assessed in proportion to his or her interest in the property in the separate or public school division of which he or she is a taxpayer for school purposes".

3. All declarations are taken as continuing and in force to be acted or until withdrawn, varied or cancelled by subsequent notices.

Status Page Provides an overview of the property account tax and penalties balance.

Study Area A group of properties with similar attributes and location but not geographically bound.  

Street Adjustment A property characteristic that can influence value as identified by analysis, such as being located on an arterial or collector street. Used in the Sales Comparison Approach to Value.

Style  The style of construction of a building, such as 1-storey, 2-storey, bi-level, etc.  

Subclass (also known as Property Subclasses) A sub-classification of property established, at the discretion of City Council, in addition to the property classes established by the Province (see Property Class and Provincial Percentage) for the purpose of managing tax incidence resulting from a revaluation. Municipalities are authorized under The Cities Act to establish property subclasses within the provincial property classes. The subclass for condominiums was created under the provincial class for residential properties.

Supplementary Assessment A change in assessment due to an amendment to the characteristics used to determine a property's assessment, where the amendments occurred for a portion of the year (e.g. new addition, demolition, change in tax status, etc). A supplementary assessment notice is mailed with a supplementary taxation notice representing the taxes due for the portion of the year in which changes were made.

Supplemental Levy A change in levy for a portion of the year due to changes in the assessment value of the property.

Supplemental Number of Months The portion of a year for which a Supplemental Assessment is valid (Ie. August thru December).

Supplementary Revised Assessment  A corrected assessment amount indicating what the assessment should  have been during the months a Supplemental assessment was effective for.  These are usually a result of a change to the property on the assessment roll.


Tax Policy A policy direction adopted by City Council to manage and apply taxes to the various properties within its jurisdiction. Tax policies can impact the amount of taxes a property owner pays. During a reassessment, City Council reviews its current tax policies and any other tax policy options available. Council then decides which tax policies to adopt.

Taxable Assessment (or Taxable Assessed Value) A value  to which a mill rate and mill rate factor are applied to arrive at a property's taxes. This value is arrived at by multiplying the assessed value by the provincial percentage.

Assessed value  X Provincial percentage = Taxable Assessment

Taxable Assessment  X Mill Rate  X Mill Rate Factor ÷ 1000 = Property Taxes

TIPPS The Tax Installment Payment Plan Service (TIPPS) allows you to pay your property taxes monthly.

Tax Notice Statement identifying how much your property tax is for the current tax year, including details of the taxing authorities that receive a portion of your tax dollars.

Tax Phase-In  The process to phase in tax changes resulting from reassessment, established at the discretion of City Council. Tax phase-in plans can be up to four years, can be different for each property class or subclass, and can be different for tax increases and decreases.

Phase-in cannot be applied to changes in the tax rate resulting from the annual budget or changes to a property's assessment because of new construction, renovations or demolitions.

Total Balance The full balance owing on a Tax account.  This will include all unpaid levies, Grant-In-Lieu transactions, local improvements, laneways, BID levies, arrears, penalties, and all other tax transactions.

Total Gross Area (TGA)  The (T)otal (G)ross (A)rea of a building is the total square footage of all floors in the building.

Total Living Area (TLA)  The approximate total living area of a home in square feet. This amount includes the main and upper floor areas. In a split level house, this amount includes the area of the third level.

Total Net Area This is the total net rentable area of all structures on the property. 

Total Number of Units The total number of suites in all buildings on the property.

Transaction Monetary exchange between the City of Regina and its customers.

Transit Number A bank transit number, is a routing number on every cheque that identifies the location of the chequing account that the customer has at the bank.


Unfinished Allowance A term indicating that a property's assessment includes an adjustment for partial construction (based on the most recent inspection by the Assessment Branch.) The Branch will complete a subsequent inspection; if at that time it is discovered construction is complete or occupied, the City will issue an additional assessment and tax bill to reflect the value as a completed structure.


Valuation The determination of the value of property for assessment purposes in accordance with a municipal Act, as of a base date established by the agency in accordance with this Act and its regulations, by methods that may include the inspection or re-inspection of property to determine physical characteristics and condition.

Valuation Neighbourhood  A definable geographical area that contains properties with similar influences on value. The Assessment Branch identifies valuation neighbourhoods by number.

In some cases, a valuation neighbourhood may have the same boundaries as a community neighbourhood. In other cases, a valuation neighbourhood may encompass several community neighbourhoods or include only part a community.  Please view the valuation neighbourhood maps.

Void Cheque  See Bank Verification.


Ward A geographical area of a city defined for the purpose of Councillor representation. The interests of the property owners in these areas are represented on City Council by an elected councillor.  



Year Built The actual year of construction of a structure.